3. Jha, Chandan Kumar and Sudipta Sarangi. 2017. "Does Social Media Reduce Corruption?". Information Economics and Policy, 39: 60-71.
- "An academic study worth reading" by Harvard based Journalist's Resource: "Can Facebook thwart corruption?"
- An IGC blog post based on the article: "Can social media and the internet reduce corruption?"
- My co-author's radio interview based on the paper: Top of mind with Julie Rose.
In this paper we study the relationship between multi-way means of communication and corruption by exploring the link between social media and corruption. Using a cross-country analysis of over 150 countries, we document a robust and statistically significant negative relationship between Facebook penetration (a proxy for social media) and corruption. A falsification test for the relationship between Facebook penetration and corruption is also reported. We find that the relationship between Facebook penetration and corruption is strongest for the set of countries with low press freedom. Moreover, we find that independent of the level of press freedom, social media and press freedom exhibit complementarity in lowering corruption. Finally, our findings also confirm the negative correlation between internet penetration and corruption.
2. Jha, Chandan and Panda, Bibhudutta. 2017. "Individualism and Corruption: A Cross-Country Analysis". Economic Papers: A journal of applied economics and policy, 36: 60–74.
While the role of cultural norms in determining corruption is well-explored in the empirical literature, the relationship between a specific aspect of culture, that is, individualism versus collectivism, and corruption is rather unexplored. This paper investigates the relationship between individualism/collectivism and corruption in a large cross-section of countries. To establish causality, the paper uses an index of historical prevalence of infectious diseases and a measure of genetic distance between the population in a country from that in the United States to instrument the individualism/collectivism variable. We find that more individualistic countries have lower levels of corruption (perception). This relationship is robust to the inclusion of a rich set of control variables and to the use of alternative measures of corruption.
1. Jha, Chandan Kumar. 2017. "Information Control, Transparency, and Social Media: Implications for Corruption." Political Scandal, Corruption, and Legitimacy in the Age of Social Media. IGI Global. 51-75.
Although the research linking social media and corruption is still in infancy, it provides important insights. It has been shown that social media can prove to be an important tool in fighting corruption. At the same time, freedom on the net is under threat in many parts of the world with governments using a variety of methods, including designing vague and flexible security laws as well as employing technological means, to censor the content that can be shared and accessed by net users. This chapter discusses the implications that government control over information can have for the effects of social media on corruption. It suggests that freedom on the net and the anonymity of net users must be protected if the effects of social media on corruption are to be fully realized.
"Women and Corruption: What Positions Must They Hold to Make a Difference?" (revision submitted at the Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization) with Sudipta Sarangi.
- An IGC blog post based on the paper: "Do women in power have an impact on corruption?"
This paper examines in what precise role -- as bribe takers, decision makers or as policy makers do women have an impact on corruption. Since much of the corruption literature is plagued either by the lack of instruments or weak instruments, this paper makes a methodological contribution by drawing inferences based on Moreira's (2003) conditional likelihood ratio approach. We provide robust evidence that women's presence in parliament has a causal and negative impact on corruption while other measures of female participation in economic activities are shown to have no effect. Further, this negative relationship between women's presence in government and corruption is also found to hold in a regional analysis of 17 European countries alleviating concerns that the relationship is driven by unobservable country-fixed characteristics. Finally, we show that this relationship does not disappear when women gain similarity in social status.
"The Role of Historical Resource Scarcity in Modern Gender Inequality" (under review at Journal of Economic History) with Gautam Hazarika and Sudipta Sarangi.
We propose that historical resource scarcity played a role in the evolution of gender norms inimical to women, cultures that persist to this day. This is a plausible thesis for three reasons. First, male dominance in some species of non-human primate may have been shaped by their resource environments. Second, the prehistoric human skeletal record suggests scarcity led to a decline in girls’ share of nutrition in parts of the world. Third, poverty is observed to contribute to gender bias in intra-household resource allocations in less developed countries. The proposition that historical habitual scarcity may have engendered cultures of gender inequality is supported by our finding that nations’ historical resource endowments, measured by the availability of arable land, are negatively related to their present levels of gender inequality as gauged by, for example, the UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index. It is supported as well in analyses at the sub-national level, which discover there are fewer missing women in districts of India better endowed with rainfall and cultivable land, and less bigotry in regard to the rights and abilities of women in sub-national regions of the world whose ancestral lands are better suited to agriculture.
"Financial Reforms and Corruption: Evidence using GMM Estimation" (under review at International Review of Economics and Finance).
This paper assesses the impact of financial reforms on corruption using a panel of 87 countries for 1984-2005. To account for the dynamic nature and high persistence of corruption, the paper employs the difference and system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators. It finds that policy reforms targeted towards financial liberalization reduce corruption. This result is robust to the inclusion of a number of control variables and the choice of the GMM estimator. Interestingly, the financial liberalization index is found to be positively correlated with corruption though this relationship is not robust. The findings also indicate that legal origins do not impose a binding constraint on the effectiveness of financial reforms in reducing corruption.
"Financial Reforms and Corruption: Which Dimensions Matter?" (under review at International Review of Finance).
This paper investigates the effects of reforms in different dimensions of the financial sector on corruption in a panel of 85 countries. It finds that several, but not all, of the policies targeted towards liberalizing financial sector reduce corruption. Specifically, entry barriers, credit controls, and reserve requirements along with the securities market development and the extent of banking supervision are significantly associated with corruption. The effects of reforms in different dimensions of the financial sector also depend on the quality of the governance (bad vs. good governance) and whether the country is an advanced or a non-advanced economy.
- The Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
- Economic Inquiry
- Southern Economic Journal
- Economic Modelling
- Contemporary Political Studies
- Applied Economics Letters
- Asian Journal of Social Sciences
- Social Networking